The sun of the existence of Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.) arose from the lap of his mother Umm-e-Farwah on the 17th of Rabiul Awal, 83rd year Hijrah, in the city of Madina. Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.) has the same birth date as that of our Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.W.). Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.) has three titles; they are As-Sadiq, Al-Fadil and At-Tahir. His father Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) was much happy and pleased by the birth of his son.
His mother Umm-e-Farwah was the grand daughter of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, who was one of the companion of Imam Ali (a.s.). Imam Ali (a.s.) repeatedly said about him that, "Muhammad is my spiritual and moral son." Asma Bint Umais was the mother of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, and she was considered to be a pious woman. She was continuously in the service of Hazrat Fatima Zahra (a.s.) and took pride in it. After the martyrdom of her husband Jafar ibn Abi Talib in the Battle of Mu'tah, Asma Bint Umais married Hazrat Abu Bakr and after his death, married to Imam Ali (a.s.).
Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.) said about her mother, "My mother was one of the pious, faithful and devoted women." Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.) was 15 years of age when his grandfather Imam Sajjad (a.s.) was martyred and 34 years old when his father Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) was martyred. Consequent upon the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (a.s.) the government of Bani Umayyah was shaken which turned the people into their enemy and pessimist about them. This opened the avenue for the formation of Bani Abbasid government. The gap in between these two powers opened the way for the propagation of Shia ideology and school of thought. Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.) could, through a learning movement, propagate the learning's of Islam in such a way to extend and make it reach all the people in the World.
The Characteristic distinctions of Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.) We all know that the conduct of men is the reflection of their inner character and everyone can be recognized by his conduct.
There are only a very few people who do not spill out their conduct and whatever they have in their interior and do not exhibit it. Whatever they have in their hearts kindles the exterior of the electric lamp like an electric switch.
Whole of the life of Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.) , like the other Imams (a.s.), was the enlightened lesson of the real and true Islam. He himself was considered to be the example and specimen of the Islamic ethic, moral and conduct. You cannot find a father and a son among all the people, of all the tribes who may resemble each other from all the angles of ideas, thoughts, character and conduct. But the family of the Prophet of Islam (PBUH) and his successors all were on the same line and performed their heavenly duty with one aim, one ideology, and did not have any kind of difference in speech, character and ethical conduct. About the ethical value and virtue of Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.), it is sufficient that out of four thousands of his students even a single one did not object or criticize upon the moral character and conduct of Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.), and did not find a weak point in it.
He was a practical example and specimen for the Muslims with respect to eating, relaxing and resting, walking, speaking, and conducts with others.
He had the same social conduct with his friends as he had with his children.
Imam Jafar as Sadiq's (a.s.) talk with a deceitful pious looking man.
One day a pious looking forgoer named Sufian stopped Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.) and said, "You are from the family of Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.W.), how is it that you put on such a precious dress?"
Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.) said, "Oh Sufian, look there is a rough shirt underneath this dress and I have put on this shirt over it so that those whose minds are in their eyes do not think that I am a poor needy and distressed one. But you have put on a soft dress underneath this rough dress, so that you may deceive others that you are a devoted ascetic. Oh Sufian! Do not be so narrow minded."
The next day, Sufian saw that Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.) was working in an agricultural field besides the labors and was sweating. He went ahead and said, "I am surprised about you. Why are you so greedy about the world and perspiring in this old age and working?"
Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.) said, "How happy I would be if I meet the God (die) in this condition that I am working hard and getting the expenditure of life by putting myself in inconvenience and I do not get myself loaded upon others."
What a miserable people are those who feed themselves upon the income of others and reach the seat of power through them and instead of service and love think all are indebted to them and are always demanding from others. Their outer form is obviously decorated and deceiving, like that of Sufian, but inwardly they are stinking and wicked.
Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.) forbearance and fortitude
The incidents and difficulties, which come into human life can, measure and find out the extent of his energy and faith. The difficulties, which cropped up in the life of Imam Jafar as Sadiq (a.s.) and the patience and forbearance, which, he showed towards them, illuminated his personality and worth. Howsoever they (enemies) abused and teased him he showed patience and forbearance and admonished them. He never cursed or used foul language about them.